Glossary

Technologies

SYS TEC electronic is a specialist in developing of customer-specific products. Our expertise in combining and integrating highly diverse technologies takes centre stage in this work. This broad base of skills allows SYS TEC electronic to take on complex individual projects.

Automated optical inspection (AOI)

Automated optical inspection (AOI) is a special form of visual inspection. It consists of taking computer-assisted photographs of the components to be inspected and comparing them to the stored components in a component library. This allows any faults in the components to be identified quickly.

Boundary scan

In a boundary scan, printed circuit boards are inspected using a standardised procedure to ensure that they have the right components or that they are correctly soldered, for example. Unlike in the ICT test, this is done with no direct physical access to the component. The boundary scan method uses latches that inject signals along pre-specified paths from outside into the circuit to be tested.

Burn-in test

The burn-in test is a stress test intended to establish the failsafe performance of parts, components and devices. These are subjected to high stresses (such as high temperatures) over a long period in order to test their quality. This helps to avoid malfunctions later on during continuous operation.

CAN

The Controller Area Network (CAN) is an asynchronous, serial bus system for networking ECUs. CAN has been developed to reduce the cabling effort when networking different ECUs and sensors. Communication via CAN is event-driven. This means that messages are sent when they occur.

The signal transmission in CAN is subdivided into two types of transmission: CAN high-speed and CAN low-speed. The physical properties are not specific to CAN unlike CANopen.

CANopen

CANopen is a CAN-based communications protocol that is primarily used in automation technology and in the field of commercial vehicles. It is also often used for networking within complex devices. CANopen supports various different communication objects, such as PDOs (process data objects) for transporting real-time data, and SDOs (service data objects) for setting the parameters of object directory entries.

Condition monitoring

Condition monitoring ensures that machinery and facilities are continuously monitored. In this process, various sensors measure a range of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, vibration and acceleration. An analysis of this data, collected in real time, allows conclusions to be made about the current state of the system. This is required for predictive maintenance.

Design to cost

In design to cost, cost control begins as early as the product development stage. The aim is to minimise overall costs, generate a short time to market and produce in a highly cost-effective manner.

Design for EMC

Design for EMC consists of producing an EMC Directive-compliant electrical design as early as the product development stage.

Design for manufacturing (DFM)

Design for manufacturing (DFM) is the adaptation of a product idea to the prevailing production conditions in order to reduce costs.

Design for test

Even as early as the development stage for components and assemblies, it is important to consider the subsequent test procedures and take them into account in the layout and circuits. Design for test makes it possible to produce optimum assemblies for the various tests.

Edge Computing

Edge Computing is a distributed, open IT architecture characterized by decentralized processing power, laying the foundations for mobile computing and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. In edge computing, data is processed by the device itself or by a local computer or server rather than being transferred to a data center.

EMC standard

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) indicates whether devices and systems function without negatively impacting their environments or other devices and systems. EMC is therefore an important mark of quality.

First article inspection (FAI)

First article inspection (FAI) is the initial sampling of components. It consists of testing whether they comply with the characteristics specified by the customer. The supplier/producer thus produces a quality certificate for the manufactured components.

First pass yield (FPY)

First pass yield (FPY) is a key figure in quality management and provides a measure of the quality of processes. It indicates the amount (as a percentage) of the components/assemblies that are produced without errors after the first production pass. SYS TEC electronic has an FPY of 99.9%.

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)

Failure mode and effects analysis is an analytical reliability analysis. It is used to evaluate the probability of occurrence and detection of potential errors as early as possible (e.g. in the design phase). This allows potential errors in the components to be detected and avoided before they occur, thus reducing costs.

Field programmable gate array (FPGA)

Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are programmable chips that can be reused again and again for circuits with functions that can be specified by the user. This makes it easy to implement hardware functions without the need for circuit boards and soldering. FPGAs are highly effective, reliable and flexible.

Graphical user interface (GUI)

The graphical user interface (GUI) is the computer’s user interface. Graphical symbols and user elements, such as icons, buttons, toolbars and scroll bars, allow the available software to be operated and used.

Human-maschine interface (HMI)

A human–machine interface (HMI) is a device or a piece of software that allows the user to communicate with machines or production facilities. The purpose of the HMI is to display process and production data and machine states as well as to input user data or user commands. It provides the user with all the instruments needed to control the processes.

High-voltage test (HV test)

The HV test verifies the efficiency of electrical insulators on the power cables and the safety distance from the device casing.

In-circuit test (ICT)

The in-circuit test (ICT) is an electrical test procedure for electronic assemblies and printed circuit boards. It focuses mainly on the parameters of component elements. The printed circuit board is placed on the test adapter with thin test needles and then checked for errors in the conductor path, such as soldering errors, placement errors or short circuits. Analogue parameters (inductance, resistance etc.) are measured in this test.

International Protection classes (IP)

The IP classes define the scope within which, according to DIN standards, a component can be exposed to various environmental influences without being damaged or posing a risk to the safety of the devices. The components are classified using two key figures: touch protection and protection against foreign bodies and water. The different levels are identified using figures.

LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench)

LabVIEW is a graphical programming unit for data processing and collection, primarily used in measurement, control and application technology. It uses the G programming language.

LPWA network (low power wide area)

LPWA is a networking technology used to transfer small amounts of data wirelessly. Due to their low power consumption, high range even on difficult terrain and low material costs, LPWA networks are popular for communication with smart devices (see also narrowband).

Mesh net

A mesh net is a spontaneous, flexible wireless network that communicates using nodes.

Mean time between failure (MTBF)

MTBF is the mean time between two malfunctions/failures. It measures the reliability and availability of devices and provides a basis for security and reliability analyses.

Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT)

MQTT is an open messaging protocol for M2M communication for the purposes of Industry 4.0. It has now become one of the standard protocols for the internet of things.

Narrowband

Narrowband, a type of LPWA network, is a standardised wireless technology that is particularly suited to M2M communication. Narrowband communication is therefore especially important in the IoT (internet of things), and is used in areas including smart industry, cities and buildings.

Node-RED

Node-RED is one of the programming tools for the internet of things (IoT). It is based on the data flow programming method (graphic representation of the data flow). The program works with ready-made functional modules that make it easier to connect IoT devices to IoT platforms.

Peak Shaving

Lowering and thus compensating for load peaks is also called peak shaving. It serves to avoid supply bottlenecks, to save costs and to relieve the network and the power plant fleet and to make more efficient use of them in times of high demand for electricity.

Predictive maintenance

In the context of Industry 4.0, the ability to predict potential failures and malfunctions is becoming ever more important in order to avoid the costs that arise from downtimes and unnecessary component replacements. Predictive maintenance makes it possible to reach conclusions in relation to potential maintenance requirements and future malfunctions at an early stage with the help of the data collected via condition monitoring.

RAMS (reliability, availability, maintainability, safety)

Reliability, availability, maintainability and safety are bundled together in the RAMS concept, which is based on DIN standard EN 50126. RAMS is a process that is applied in the planning phase of new products with the aim of preventing errors in later stages. It includes risk analyses, tests and safety verifications, as well as hazard rates. RAMS is primarily used in the railway industry.

Second source method

The aim of the second source method is always to have one to two alternative suppliers of a product or component. This prevents delivery bottlenecks, overpricing and unavailability.

Safety integrity level (SIL)

The safety integrity level (SIL) is part of the field of functional safety and indicates the reliability of safety functions by means of a risk assessment (integer values from 1 to 4). Each SIL entails functional and safety-related specifications for the components and devices, which must be observed in construction.

Programmable logic controller (PLC)

A programmable logic controller (PLC) is a device for controlling machines and facilities. A PLC works according to a cycle using the IPO (input–process–output) principle. The international standard IEC 61131-3 defines five alternative PLC programming languages (IL = instruction list, ST = structured text, LDD = ladder diagram, FBD = function block diagram, SFC = sequential function chart).

Surface-mounting technology (SMT)

Surface-mounting technology is used to mount and solder components either mechanically or manually. The soldering paste required for the soldering process is applied to the circuit board directly using a template. This is therefore a surface-mounting process that does not require wires or boreholes and that can be used with thinner circuit boards. SMT is part of electronic manufacturing services.

Through-hole technology (THT)

Unlike SMT, through-hole technology makes use of a technique in which the wired components are pushed through the openings in the circuit board and then soldered by hand or mechanically.